I don’t mean offense, but if you have to ask, you probably don’t have the experience to shoot any one of them well. Those are all heavy recoiling cartridges. You may want to start smaller and see how you handle recoil first. Don’t succumb to the “I need a big ass gun” syndrome. You don’t, and can still be highly effective.
Just so you understand the nomenclature: .30-06 isn't a caliber, it's a cartridge (The ".30-06 Springfield" shoots a .308 Caliber Bullet, and was Introduced in 1906). It shoots a .308 caliber just like the .308 Winchester, .300 WSM, .300 Winchester Magnum, .300 PRC, .30 Nosler, .300 RUM, .300 Terminator (and more) meaning that all of those cartridges can shoot the exact same bullets (within reason anyways) with different size brass, using different amounts of powder, shooting the bullets at different speeds, and making different amounts of recoil.Up to this point I have used what I would consider to be very common calibers 30.06, .270, .308, and even a .300 win mag (.300 am did nothing for me).
As mentioned, it’s not entirely about “needing a big bullet”. 3 of those CARTRIDGES you mentioned can all shoot the same bullet, as they are the same CALIBER. Bullet/caliber/diameter is only one component. The bigger issue is the amount of powder behind that bullet. There’s a trade off to all these choices.No offense taken. I have grown up shooting and have used a number of different caliber rifles to practice and harvest game. Up to this point I have used what I would consider to be very common calibers 30.06, .270, .308, and even a .300 win mag (.300 am did nothing for me). I was asking more because I am not familiar with the magnum cartridges. You are spot on about not needing a big bullet, and focus more on placing the bullet in the proper location.